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Foundations Of Dharmakirti

 

Foundations Of Dharmakirti's Philosophy Pdf Download >>> http://shurll.com/bk38f

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Perception...is...directly...causally...bound...to...particulars...and...“fixed”...(niyata)...by...them:...its...internal...representation...(kra)...of...the...object...is...causally...determined...by,...and...corresponds...to,...the...particular...itself....It..is..an..unfinished,..highly..philosophical,..commentary..on..the..PramGasamuccaya..(“Compendium..of..Epistemology”)..of..Dignga...Dharmak rti...thus...explains...how...an...individual...(to...be...called...“Jones”)...can...think...about...and...refer...to...such...and...such...an...object...in...the...world...through...a...complex...and...long...causal...chain...from...the...particular...objects...to...the...mental...invention...of...a...quasi-universal...and...the...use...of...a...word...on...a...specific...occasion....1....How...do...Mdhyamikas...Think?...And...Other...Essays...on...the...Buddhist...Philosophy...of...the...Middle...(Studies...in...Indian...and...Tibetan...Buddhism),...Somerville...MA:...Wisdom...Publications....He...begins...by...introducing...verse...34...as...follows:...Well,...if...observation...and...non-observation...are...no...basis...for...knowing...the...co-presence...and...co-absence...[of...smoke...and...fire],...how...then...does...one...know...that...smoke...does...not...deviate...(na...vyabhicarati)...from...fire?[24]...Dharmak rti...then...argues...that...whatever...is...smoke...must...have...originated...from...fire...in...order...for...it...to...be...smoke—otherwise...it's...just...a...smoke-like...thing,...a...pseudo-smoke....

 

First...of...all,...grammatical...elements,...like...subject...and...predicate,...qualifier...and...qualificand,...agent...and...action,...etc.,...have...no...corresponding...ontological...features,...as...particulars...are...unities...admitting...no...distinctions...between...possessors...of...properties...(dharmin)...and...properties...(dharma)....Kajiyama,..Yuichi,..1958,..“On..the..Theory..of..Intrinsic..Determination..of..Universal..Concomitance..in..Buddhist..Logic,”..Indogaku..BukkyMgaku..Kenkyk../..The..Journal..of..Indian..and..Buddhist..Studies,..7(1):..364–360...Part..of..the..reason..for..this..indecision..is..that..a..significant..time..seems..to..have..elapsed..before..Dharmak rti..achieved..notoriety..in..India,..although..it..is..unclear..how..much...Thus....a....debater....can....present....an....opponent....with....a....prasaEga....(consequence)....of....the....sort:....“It....would....follow....absurdly....that....A....would....be....B,....because....of....being....C.”....Such....a....consequence....will....constitute....the....key....step....in....a....proof....by....reductio....ad....absurdum,....a....proof....that....will....culminate....in....a....type....of....contraposition,....turning....on....modus....tollens.....as...Dharmak rti's...dates,...using...an...argumentum...ex...silentio...that...is...short...of...conclusive—hardly...more...than...one...piece...in...the...puzzle.[3]...One...problem...is...that...there...may...indeed...be...some...counterevidence...that...would...place...Dharmak rti...a...half-century...earlier,...inter...alia...his...possible...connections...with...Dharmapla,...a...sixth-century...idealist...philosopher...who,...according...to...Tibetan...historians,...was...the...monk...that...ordained...Dharmak rti....Nominalism..1.2...An..Introduction..(Ashgate..World..Philosophies..Series),..Indianapolis:..Hackett...Johannes...Bronkhorst...Felicitation...Volume...(World...of...South...and...Inner...Asia,...Volume...5),...Bern:...Peter...Lang,...pp....Taken...further,...it...would...have...major...consequences...for...Buddhist...ethics....

 

ni[caya,...ni[cita)...with...a...pramGa,...and...that...this...ascertainment...must...itself...involve...antecedent...reliable...cognitions...(i.e.,...perceptual...or...conceptual...pramGas)...in...order...to...be...genuine....Suppose....it....said....that....a....permanent....thing....has....successive....concomitant....circumstances....in....dependence....upon....which....it....brings....about....a....collection....of....effects....serially.[17]....To....this....objection,....Dharmak rti,....and....especially....the....later....commentators....like....Zntarakcita....and....Kamala[ la,....reply....that....if....a....would-be....cause....remained....unchanged....over....time....and....if....it....was....only....the....concomitant....circumstances....that....changed,....then....it....would....have....to....be....the....new....circumstances....that....were....the....actual....cause....of....the....new....effects.....Chi,...in...his...Buddhist...Formal...Logic...(Chi...1984),...went...several...steps...further...and...attempted...to...show...that...the...Hetucakra,...taken...in...its...formal...aspects,...might...present...a...number...of...interesting...features...to...a...modern...logician....For....Dignga....(and....his....successors)....this....split....between....perception....and....conceptual....thought....was....part....and....parcel....of....a....type....of....foundationalism.....Reprinted..in..Mimaki..et..al...Not...surprisingly,...the...idea...that...provers...are...apoha-properties...rather...than...words...has...its...philosophical...complexities....Eltschinger,....Krasser,....and....Taber....(2012)....contains....an....English....translation....of....I.312-340....and....of....the....Autocommentary....by....Dharmak rti.....

 

Following....Williams....(1998),....Kellner....(2010)....and....Arnold....(2010),....there....seem....to....be....to....be....two....basic....themes....in....the....positions....from....Dignga....and....Dharmak rti....to....Zntarakcita....that....all....consciousness....is....non-conceptually....reflexive:....(1)....that....the....mind....perceives,....with....a....second-order....perception,....that....such....and....such....data....is....being....presented....to....it;....it....is....thus....non-conceptually....aware....of....all....its....own....states;....(2)....that....reflexive....awareness....is....a....condition....of....sentience:....an....experience....is....not....just....a....material....process....(like,....say,....digestion),....but....can....lead....to....subsequent....memory....and....conceptualization....because....it....is....non-conceptually....“auto-illuminated.”[33]....On....both....versions,....however,....while....someone....could....be....aware....that....she....is....now....inferring....P....in....reliance....upon....a....reason....Q,....it....is....hard....to....see....that....her....simple....second-order....awareness....of....processes....“going....on....in....her....head”....would....also....mean....that....she....herself....would....know....that....or....why....the....inference....was....justified.....This...dubbing...is...a...purely...causal...event...not...dependent...on...any...descriptive...content....Granted..that..we..think..that..the..mental..content,..i.e.,..the..generic..representation,..has..a..distribution..(anvaya)..over..several..instances,..is..it..genuinely..distinct..from..or..the..same..as..the..instances?..In..the..former..case,..it..would..not..apply..to..them;..in..the..latter..case..it..would..itself..be..a..particular..and..unable..to..apply..to..other..particulars...These..three..criteria..for..“goodness”..are..given..in..the..following..fashion..from..Dharmak rti..on:..pakcadharmatva..(the..logical..reason's..being..a..property..of..the..subject):..the..subject..A..is..ascertained..(ni[cita)..as..having..the..property..C;..anvayavypti..(pervasion..[that..is..formulated]..as..co-presence..):..C..is..ascertained..as..present..in..only..instances..similar..(sapakca)..to..A..insofar..as..they..possess..B;..vyatirekavypti..(pervasion..[formulated]..as..co-absence):..C..is..ascertained..as..wholly..absent..from..instances..dissimilar..(vipakca)..to..A..insofar..as..they..do..not..possess..B.[50]..True,..in..texts..like..the..Hetucakra..of..Dignga..(which..was..taken..up..in..detail..by..Dharmak rti..in..PramGavrttika..IV..and..PramGavini[caya..III),..a..version..of..the..triple..criterion..(trairkpya)..for..good..reasons..and..the..operators..“partial..presence,”..“complete..presence,”..and..“complete..absence”..were..correlated..to..yield..a..series..of..nine..types..of..reasons,..types..that..are..abstracted..from..content..and..subject..matter...The..recurring..Buddhist..metaphysical..argument..against..the..reality..of..universals..is..that..they..would..be..subject..to..an..intractable..“one-many”..problem:..the..universal,..which..would..be..one..thing,..would..have..to..be..somehow..present..in..and..share..the..nature..of..several..different..particulars...–––,....2010,....“Self-Awareness....(svasaCvitti)....and....Related....Doctrines....of....Buddhists....following....Dignga:....Philosophical....Characterization....of....Some....of....the....Main....Issues,”....Journal....of....Indian....Philosophy,....38:....323–378.....Given..that..the..bidirectional..pervasion..analyzes..as..“for..all..x,..x..is..produced..if..and..only..if..x..is..impermanent”,..the..extension..of..the..two..concepts..(i.e.,..the..set..of..impermanent..particulars..and..the..set..of..produced..particulars)..is..the..same..for..Buddhists...Dharmak rti.bersetzung...(Fortsetzung),”...Wiener...Zeitschrift...fr...die...Kunde...des...Morgenlandes,...40:...51–94....

 

They..could..cheerfully..allow..that..when..one..person..sees..a..vase..and..another..thinks..about..it,..the..type..of..understanding..may..be..different..but..the..object..is..the..same..in..that..the..conceptual..thought..grasps..a..real..universal..vaseness..that..inheres..in..the..same..particular..vase..that..is..perceived...Religion...and...ethics...Finally,...what...of...the...Buddhist...religion?...While...Dharmak rti...has...sometimes...been...depicted...as...a...dry...practitioner...of...an...essentially...secular...philosophy,...this...seems...hardly...defensible....London:..Curzon,..136–154...–––,..2014,..Buddhist..Epistemology..as..Apologetics...This...is...a...credible...account...of...what...Dharmak rti...held.... 4fb9d08492

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